1. Facts
  2. Sources of the data
  3. Orthography
  4. Verbal inflection
  5. Inflectional classes by affixation
  6. Stem alternation patterns


Xochapa Mixtec is a member of the Guerrero subgroup and thus closely related to Yoloxóchitl Mixtec, also a Guerrero Mixtec language. Xochapa Mixtec is spoken by approximately 8,000 people in Xochapa, a village in the municipality of Alcozauca about 60 kilometers north-northeast of Yoloxóchitl. In general, Xochapa Mixtec bears a strong resemblance to Yoloxóchitl Mixtec, though differing in some interesting ways.

Sources of the data

Stark, Johnson, and Guzmán, 2006. Diccionario básico del mixteco de Xochapa, Guerrero. Segunda edición. Mexico City: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. Available online.


We have respected the orthography used in the sources, except for the glottal stop:

IPA notation Source notation Our notation
Nasality Vn
ʔ ' ʔ
ʃ x
j y
ʒ j
ɲ ñ


Xochapa Mixtec has four level tones. To facilitate comparison we have converted the orthography of the original, which uses diacritics, to numbers: 1 (low) to 4 (high), and one falling tone which we have characterized as /42/ or /4↓/.

Verbal inflection

Our database of Xochapan Mixtec from Stark, Johnson, and González de Guzmán (2006) includes 142 verbs with bimoraic and trimoraic lexical stems. For each entry, the authors give three inflected forms: the irrealis (called ‘future’), the completive (called ‘past’) and the incompletive (called ‘present’). Tonal inflection is complex, and deserves further study including more verbs. A first approach is attained in Palancar, Amith and García (forthcoming), available online. For convenience, tone structure has been given in the database to aid possible future analyses.

Inflectional classes by affixation

The verbs of the database fall into three inflectional classes in Xochapa Mixtec, determined by the presence or absence of segmental prefixes. There are also some irregular verbs that do not fit into this pattern.

In Class 1, the default class, the completive is encoded in two complementary ways forming two subclasses:

  • Subclass 1.a: Verbs that have a tone /3/ on the first mora in their lexical representation (i.e., irrealis), receive a tone /2/ in the completive.
  • Subclass 1.b: Verbs with a lexical tone /1/ on the first mora receive the prefix ndi¹-. The database provides information about both forms and class membership.

Class I.a
Class I.b ndi¹-
Class II ku³- xi¹-
Class III ku³- xi¹- i⁴-

Class IRR CPL INCPL Example
Class I.a
chaʔ³bi³ chaʔ²bi² chaʔ⁴bi⁴ (tr) ‘pay’
ka³a³ ka²a² ka⁴a⁴ (intr) ‘bathe (at sweat lodge)’
Class I.b
ka¹nda¹ ndi¹-ka¹nda¹ ka⁴nda¹ (intr) ‘move, tremble’
ku¹ni¹ ndi¹-ku¹ni¹ ku⁴ni¹ (tr) ‘want’
Class II
ku³-na³ni⁴ xi¹-na²ni⁴ na⁴ni⁴ (intr) ‘be called’
Class III
ku³-nduʔ⁴u⁴ xi¹-nduʔ²u⁴ i⁴-nduʔ⁴u⁴ (intr) ‘be seated’ (SG)

Stem alternation patterns

Like the verbs of Yoloxóchitl Mixtec, a few verbs in the database of Xochapa Mixtec also display stem variance. When they do, the stem of the irrealis may either have the stem formative ku+ or ka+.

ku+ class xaʔ²ni⁴ ku+ʔ3ni⁴ (tr) ‘kill’
chu²tu⁴ ku+³tu⁴ (intr) ‘fill up’
ka+ class xaʔ¹nu¹ ka+ʔ¹nu¹ (tr) ‘cut’
xi²ka² ka+³ka³ (intr) ‘walk’