Zenzontepec Chatino is a Chatino language of the Zapotecan branch of Oto-Manguean. The language is spoken by about 8,000 people in the locality of Santa Cruz Zenzontepec in the state of Oaxaca.
Data courtesy of Eric Campbell.
Campbell, Eric and Troi Carleton. Diccionario del idioma chatino de Santa Cruz Zenzontepec, Oaxaca; Chatino-Castellano. Mexico City: INALI.
Campbell, Eric. 2014. Aspects of the phonology and morphology of Zenzontepec Chatino, a Zapotecan language of Oaxaca, Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. Available online.
Campbell, Eric. 2011. Zenzontepec Chatino aspect morphology and Zapotecan verb classes. International Journal of American Linguistics 77(2):219-46. Available online.
Campbell, Eric. Accepted. Layered complexity in Zenzontepec Chatino verbal inflectional classes, in Enrique L. Palancar, Matthew Baerman and Timothy Feist (eds.), Inflectional complexity: New lights from the Oto-Manguean languages of Mexico.
|NASALITY||į, ą, etc. (hook)
Zenzontepec Chatino has two level tones, but there are also words with morae which bear no lexical tone.
Note: morae with no tone are observed in tonal sandhi effects.
Verbs in Chatino can be basic, derived or compounds. Derived verbs mainly include Causatives (with a set of different causative prefixes, mainly u-) and Iteratives. Causative verbs are no longer the outcome of a productive derivational rule, and should be viewed as lexicalized items. The database provides information about the status of non-basic verbs with a schematic gloss in Spanish taken directly from the source data, e.g. –u¹-hni² (tr) [CAUS-crecer] ‘lengthen’.
Zenzontepec Chatino is the most conservative Chatino language. Verbs in this language inflect for four aspect-mood values: Completive, Potential, Habitual and Progressive. Campbell (2011) proposes the existence of various inflectional classes, which he groups into three main types A, B and C, following a traditional proposal by Kaufman (1987). In the notation of the different classes, these capital letters are then followed by a lower case letter which mainly points to a phonological property of the stem. Some examples of Campbell's inflectional classes are presented below.
NOTE: c: consonant; u: stem with onset in /u/; a: stem with onset in /a/; t: stem with onset in /t/; y: stem with onset in /j/.
Because of their morphological complexity, the database presents all forms of all verbs.
Independently from aspect-mood prefixes and their organization, tone also plays a role in verbal inflection (see Campbell, accepted, for details). For example, of the above verbs, there are two fundamental types: invariable and variable verbs.
NOTE: As Potential and Habitual share the same tone, only Potential is illustrated.
NOTE: No-tone is indicated by X.
Invariable verbs – Verbs which do not change tonal melody across the different aspect-mood forms:
Variable verbs – Verbs which fall into different tonal classes:
|2-1, X-X, 2-1||nk-ya²na¹||ch_aˣnaˣ||nte-y-a²na¹||‘wilt’||(intr)||By|
|_2, 1-2, X-1||ke²ʔ||k-a¹ke²ʔ||nch-aˣke¹ʔ||‘cook’||(intr)||Ca|
Given their lexical specificity, the database also includes information about the schematic tonal structure of all forms.